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State of Kerala became the third State overall and the largest State so far to be declared Open Defecation Free (ODF) under the Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) (Gramin). With a rural population of approximately 3.5 crores, is also the largest State so far to have achieved the ODF Status, after Sikkim (~6 lakhs) and Himachal Pradesh (~70 lakhs)
The aim of the mission is to provide basic civic amenities like water supply, sewerage, urban transport, parks as to improve the quality of life for all especially the poor and the disadvantaged. The focus of the Mission is on infrastructure creation that has a direct link to provision of better services to the citizens.
The Government of India has launched the Smart Cities Mission on 25 June 2015.The objective is to promote sustainable and inclusive cities that provide core infrastructure and give a decent quality of life to its citizens, a clean and sustainable environment and application of ‘Smart’ Solutions.
Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) launched on 2nd October, 2014. Urban (SBM-U), aims at making urban India free from open defecation and achieving 100% scientific management of municipal solid waste in 4,041 statutory towns in the country.

Solid Waste Management

Owing to unprecedented urbanization, and which continues to take place, the management of solid waste is a major public health and environmental concern in most of the urban areas in India. Although some ULBs have succeeded in providing lasting positive impacts on the management of solid waste, many failed to continue activities and sustain the projects. The projects became unsustainable due to various technical, financial, institutional, economic, and social constraints. This section provides information of existing and emerging technologies in Solid Waste Management. It provides access of information for general public and experts.

Municipal Solid Waste Management

For most of the urban local bodies in India solid waste is a major concern that has reached alarming proportions  requiring management initiatives on a war-footing. Though solid waste management is one of the basic essential services to be provided by municipal authorities in India, the present scenario provides rather a clumsy picture in terms of service delivery as evidenced by the absence of adequate overall waste management mechanism.

Solid Waste Management (SWM) is a system for handling of all types of garbage. This involves two main aspects, viz., the social engineering and technological interventions. Social Engineering consists development and implementation of a strategy and capacity development for SWM which focus on the various social aspects like waste generation, segregated storage at source, hygienic handling & transportation and monitoring of day-to-day activities aimed at sustaining the system established and achieving continual improvements whereas technology intervention is application of the correct technology at the right time and the right place for waste processing, recycling and disposal.

The commonly practiced technologies for SWM can be grouped under three major categories, i.e., bio-processing, thermal processing and sanitary landfill. The bio-processing method includes aerobic and anaerobic composting. Thermal methods are incineration and pyrolysis.

Sanitary Landfill is generally used to dispose of the final rejects coming out of the biological and thermal waste processing units.

The bio-processing includes the following technologies:

  • Aerobic composting (windrow composting, vermi-composting, aerated static pile composting and in-vessel composting)
  • Bio-methanation
  • Pelletization
  • Thermal methods practised for solid waste management are:
  • Incineration, and
  • Pyrolysis

Sanitary landfill is a systematic technique for disposal of final rejects. Safe disposal of leachate originating from sanitary landfill and windrows is accomplished through the application of different Leachate Treatment Technologies.

Recycle and reuse in Waste Management

The Municipal solid waste stream also contains recyclable materials like paper and cardboard, plastics, glass, metals etc and hence Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) should include the processing of recyclable items like

  • Paper and cardboard
  • Plastics
  • Glass, Metals
  • Batteries and tyres
  • Specific types of wastes

Urban local bodies need to be equipped essentially with the technologies for Slaughterhouse Waste (SHW) Management – both Solid Waste & Wastewater

  • Bio-medical Waste Management (BWM)
  • Hazardous Waste Management (HWM)
  • Electronic Waste Management etc

Centre for Environment and Development, Thiruvananthapuram (CED) is the Centre of Excellence (CoE) of Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India on“Solid Waste and Wastewater Management”. The main objective of the CoE is to develop (i) Strategy and Framework for Solid Waste Management (SWM) and Wastewater Management (WWM) in the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) of India (ii) Capacity Building and Training to different target groups and (iii) Establishment of a Knowledge Centre on Solid Waste and Wastewater Management.