Solid Waste Management
Owing to unprecedented urbanization, and which continues to take place, the management of solid waste is a major public health and environmental concern in most of the urban areas in India. Although some ULBs have succeeded in providing lasting positive impacts on the management of solid waste, many failed to continue activities and sustain the projects. The projects became unsustainable due to various technical, financial, institutional, economic, and social constraints. This section provides information of existing and emerging technologies in Solid Waste Management. It provides access of information for general public and experts.
Municipal Solid Waste Management
For most of the urban local bodies in India solid waste is a major concern that has reached alarming proportions requiring management initiatives on a war-footing. Though solid waste management is one of the basic essential services to be provided by municipal authorities in India, the present scenario provides rather a clumsy picture in terms of service delivery as evidenced by the absence of adequate overall waste management mechanism.
Solid Waste Management (SWM) is a system for handling of all types of garbage. This involves two main aspects, viz., the social engineering and technological interventions. Social Engineering consists development and implementation of a strategy and capacity development for SWM which focus on the various social aspects like waste generation, segregated storage at source, hygienic handling & transportation and monitoring of day-to-day activities aimed at sustaining the system established and achieving continual improvements whereas technology intervention is application of the correct technology at the right time and the right place for waste processing, recycling and disposal.
The commonly practiced technologies for SWM can be grouped under three major categories, i.e., bio-processing, thermal processing and sanitary landfill. The bio-processing method includes aerobic and anaerobic composting. Thermal methods are incineration and pyrolysis.
Sanitary Landfill is generally used to dispose of the final rejects coming out of the biological and thermal waste processing units.
The bio-processing includes the following technologies:
- Aerobic composting (windrow composting, vermi-composting, aerated static pile composting and in-vessel composting)
- Thermal methods practised for solid waste management are:
- Incineration, and
Sanitary landfill is a systematic technique for disposal of final rejects. Safe disposal of leachate originating from sanitary landfill and windrows is accomplished through the application of different Leachate Treatment Technologies.
Recycle and reuse in Waste Management
The Municipal solid waste stream also contains recyclable materials like paper and cardboard, plastics, glass, metals etc and hence Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) should include the processing of recyclable items like
- Paper and cardboard
- Glass, Metals
- Batteries and tyres
- Specific types of wastes
Urban local bodies need to be equipped essentially with the technologies for Slaughterhouse Waste (SHW) Management – both Solid Waste & Wastewater
- Bio-medical Waste Management (BWM)
- Hazardous Waste Management (HWM)
- Electronic Waste Management etc